TMR (total mixed ration) feed moisture management

TMR fully mixed rations

In the TMR nutritional system, all feed components, such as fodder, concentrates, additives, etc., are mixed together and adjusted to a certain concentration and proportion, and are freely available to the animal in most hours of the day. In TMR rations, the food portion is uniform and nutritionally balanced. In this feeding system, a fixed or mobile mixer is needed so that the ration is completely mixed and distributed among the animals. Of course, it is recommended in farms with more than 50 dairy cows and to some extent it makes the management of the farm’s nutrition easy and control it. makes it more accurate. The role of management in this system is very significant, which should be the manager’s responsibility to monitor fodder and feed storage, ration formulation, grouping of cows, complete ration mix and economy. The use of fully mixed rations in advanced dairy farms has been expanding and has been able to increase the milk production of cows by 5-10% during lactation periods and reduce metabolic diseases, especially acidosis and flatulence.

Advantages of using TMR feed in cattle farming:

1. TMR reduces the risk of gastrointestinal upset, stabilizes rumen pH, and optimizes rumen feed digestion.

2. Ruminal microorganisms have protein and carbohydrate uniformity throughout the day. This increases rumen fermentation and rumen microbial protein production.

3. TMR mixers can reduce the work of feeding cows and save labor cost.

4. TMR gives more control and precision on the amount of feed than individual ingredients.

5. Feeding a TMR that is properly balanced for cows can increase milk production by 1 to 2.5 kg per cow.

6. Milk fat and other components may increase.

7. Small amounts of low quality forage or inedible feed can be successfully fed in a TMR. This feeding practice also allows cows to utilize these feeds better than when they are fed separately.

8. Measuring daily feed intake is easier.

Cows have an uncanny ability to separate feed with their tongues and eat the tasty parts. Although segregation cannot be 100% eliminated by feeding practices, a TMR with adequate moisture content will help minimize segregation.

Cows like moist fodder. But what is the optimal amount, can the animal feed ration be very wet?

The source of moisture must be identified. The moisture obtained by adding water to the ration is different from the moisture present in the forage itself as silage or chopped green forage.

Why is moisture management important in TMR?

First of all, the palatability of TMR wet feed should be considered. The consumption of cows increases when water is added to the dry animal feed. In most cases, in order to increase milk production in cattle farms and improve the physical condition and reproduction of cows, the rancher wants to maximize their feed consumption, and moistening the dry TMR helps the rancher to achieve this goal.

Moisture reduces feed segregation

The second reason why TMR wet feed is mixed with dry animal feed and fed to livestock is that

Dry animal feed is balanced and to maintain its balance, animal feed ingredients should not be separated from each other from the time it is made to the time it is consumed.

Cows have an uncanny ability to separate feed with their tongues and eat the tasty parts. Although segregation cannot be 100% eliminated by feeding practices, a TMR with adequate moisture content will help minimize segregation.

If the rancher had to set a general goal for the best dry matter to moisture ratio in the TMR, he would probably consider a ratio of 50 to 50 percent. This desired percentage can be reached by feeding the usual amount of silage, wet by-products and adding a small amount of water. But keep in mind that feed ingredients do not provide the same amount of moisture in the feed.

Water added to the ration through wet feed (such as silage) increases the moisture content of the entire ration, liquid compounds such as water and whey can be very effective in increasing the moisture content of fodder and dry grains.

Feeding and feeding is an important management science in dairy cattle breeding industry. In the new generation of dairy cows, due to the high level of production, their management is a very complicated and important issue and requires the use of appropriate technologies. The use of fully mixed rations is a growing feeding method in dairy cattle breeding units, which has shown satisfactory and valuable results in increasing milk production and its compounds (milk fat and protein percentage). This method helps dairy cows, especially high-yielding (super), to reach their maximum performance, and in addition to increasing the milk production capacity, it ensures the proper functioning of the rumen and can prevent the occurrence of metabolic diseases, especially acidosis, to a large extent.

Important points in preparing TMR rations

1- Testing fodder and edible materials: since the composition of fodder or silage materials is subject to change, sampling and testing samples is important. As much as possible, fodder and food items should be tested once a week so that their percentage of dry matter and moisture does not change.

2- Determining the dry matter of silage materials: according to the weather conditions of the region, if silage materials are used once a week or two weeks, the dry matter percentage of silage materials should be determined. If the dry matter of the silage material is low or high, the quality of the whole ration will be affected and there will be a change in milk production.

3- Determining the pH of a completely mixed diet: The pH of the TMR diet should be taken into account because the pH of the rumen environment is influenced by the diet and with increasing or decreasing pH, the activities of Rumen bacteria and protozoa are transformed. So, adding enough buffer and bringing the pH of TMR ration to 5.5-6 will increase the consumption of dry matter and improve milk production.

4- Preserving the freshness of the feed ingredients before feeding the cows: It should be noted that the mixed ration is suitable for the daily needs of the cows and the quality of the feed ingredients is still maintained.

It should be noted that when planning these rations: dry matter consumption, percentage of dry matter, soluble crude protein, degradable crude protein, concentration and total net lactation energy of the ration, NDF, ADF, NFC, Fat, the amount of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, and salt), the amount of vitamins (A, D, E), the ratio of fodder to concentrate and the ratio of mega calories of net milking energy to Pounds or kilograms of raw protein are considered.

بدون نظر

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.