The use of mineral elements is necessary for maximum production and animal health. Selenium as a necessary but little consumed mineral, due to its change in plant sources consumed by ruminants and poultry, as well as the lack of soil selenium in many parts of the world and Iran, is important. It is from non-ruminant animals (selenium absorption in monogastric animals is 2.5 times that of ruminant animals), it doubles the importance of providing sufficient selenium in the diet of ruminants, and subsequently, its deficiency can lead to negative changes in the state of the rumen and the productive performance of livestock. Selenium is an essential mineral in animals, which is necessary to maintain the normal physiological function of the body and also provides an effective food source of antioxidants. In many studies, it was found that the consumption of selenium and vitamin E in livestock and poultry increases the production of antibodies. and increases the resistance of livestock and poultry against antigens, and according to other researches, consumption of selenium and vitamin E improves the cellular immune response of livestock. Recently, selenium was recognized as a component of iodothyrine 5-deiodinase enzyme, an enzyme that plays a role in the conversion of tetraiodothyronine and triiodothyronine hormones. Also, selenium plays an important role in the body’s antioxidant system due to its presence in glutathione peroxidase enzyme. In order to reduce the adverse effects of heat stress, natural antioxidants such as vitamins E and C and some minerals (selenium and zinc) are used. It has also been proven that vitamins and minerals play an important role in the growth of animals and their reproductive activities. There is an important relationship between selenium and vitamin E and sulfur-containing amino acids in preventing some nutritional diseases caused by the lack of these elements. . One of the important issues in the use of drugs and vitamin and mineral supplements is the method of using these substances in livestock. Of course, in the case of minerals, you can also use lickable bricks. The injectable use of minerals and vitamins may be an advantage in the sense that the desired amount reaches the animal’s body exactly, but this method is very time-consuming and difficult in large units, and on the other hand, tying the animal and tissue injection causes stress to the animal. Newborn animals are very important and sensitive in this field because restraining and injecting drugs and vitamins into them causes more severe stress, for this reason, if it is possible to use mineral and vitamin supplements needed in certain conditions more easily. The contract can be very effective in reducing manpower and increasing livestock performance.
Uses of selenium and its relationship with vitamin E and its effects in livestock and poultry
In poultry, for the prevention and treatment of complications caused by vitamin E and selenium deficiency, growth reduction, reduction of hatchability, encephalomalacia, muscular dystrophy and correction of fat metabolism (prevention of fatty carcass) as well as for the prevention and treatment of muscular dystrophy (white muscle disease- myopathy )nutritional, placenta is prescribed in cows, horses, sheep and goats.
1. Fertility: It plays a role in the biosynthesis of testosterone and the normal development of spermatozoa.
2. Immune System: Protects RNA from oxidative damage and enhances immune system function.
3. It is an anti-inflammatory agent.
4. It plays a role in making brain neurotransmitters.
5. Protects the eyes.
6. Selenium prevents depression, impatience, anxiety and aggression.
7. Selenium reduces the aging process, heart diseases and cancer.
8. Selenium plays a role in the proper functioning of the thyroid gland.
9. Selenium plays a role in the reconstruction and repair of damaged parts of DNA and is effective in preventing the effects of toxins in the liver.
Arsenic accelerates the removal of selenium from the body. Most of the proteins containing selenium have enzymatic functions. Glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase are among them. Selenium efficiency is increased by vitamin E and antioxidant substances.
Absorption of selenium decreases with high doses of vitamin C, zinc and heavy metals.
The role of selenium in poultry:
– The increase in tolerance to cold, which depends on the amount of thick coating, is also affected by the activity of the thyroid hormone, which depends on the selenium element.
– Selenium increases the shelf life of eggs.
– Increasing dietary selenium increases egg selenium.
– Reducing the negative effects of high concentration of ammonia and CO2 in poultry houses on poultry performance.
– Eliminating free radicals that are created during the fight with diseases.
– Reducing the negative effects of the presence of heavy metals in the diet of broiler chickens on their performance.
– Reducing the negative effects of drugs that reduce the absorption of dietary antioxidants.
– Increasing the performance of the immune system.
– Improving the performance of broiler chickens in cases of non-absorption syndrome.
– Prevention of white muscle disease.
The role of selenium in livestock (sheep and cattle):
– Reducing the percentage of remaining pairs
– Increasing the percentage of insemination and pregnancy in large livestock
– Prevention of abortion in pregnant ewes
– Reduction of uterine infections and mastitis
– Increasing the performance of the immune system
– Prevention of white muscle disease
Deficiencies and metabolic disease:
–Selenium deficiency causes muscular dystrophy, capillary disease, inflammation, pancreatic fibrosis, feather reduction, immunodeficiency and reduced hatching.
– The symptoms of selenium deficiency in chickens are related to the role of selenium in antioxidant protection through glutathione peroxidase enzyme.
– Seepage of water under the skin in chickens occurs due to selenium deficiency even if vitamin E in the diet is sufficient.
– Analysis of the pancreas and the muscles of the gizzard and the heart in poultry has also been reported.
– Selenium deficiency in poultry reduces egg production and reduces the ability of chickens to be hatched.
– In livestock, when the fetus does not receive enough vitamin E, the pregnant mother may be exposed to abortion, because the lack of this vitamin prevents the growth of vital organs of the baby.
-Researchers at the University of Oregon recently discovered that a severe deficiency of vitamin E causes a decrease in the body’s essential acids, which forces cells to rely on glucose to prevent damage. In the absence of glucose for energy, many of the characteristics of It does not develop physically and neurologically, especially in the brain, and results in death.
–Vitamin E helps the immune system in fighting diseases, but one of its main functions is its role as an antioxidant. In this role, it neutralizes negatively charged molecules known as free radicals that can damage cells and lead to problems such as heart disease and cancer. According to researchers, by limiting the production of free radicals and also Through other mechanisms, vitamin E may help prevent or delay chronic diseases associated with free radicals.
– The existence of vitamin E is essential for the central nervous system and is defined as one of the main antioxidants of the body, the lack of which causes “oxidative stress”, produces a toxic effect and damages the intracellular structures, which ultimately gives humans and animals a feeling of weakness in the muscles.
– Vitamin E deficiency causes the creation of certain neurons called Purkinje and disrupts the signaling process in the nervous system, resulting in unbalanced walking.
– Damage to nerve fibers prevents proper signal transmission and causes peripheral neuropathy and causes fatigue and tingling in the body.
–Vitamin E deficiency weakens the light receptors in the retina and weakens the eye cells. This phenomenon can lead to vision loss in the long term.
– Some researches show that lack of vitamin E can hinder the activity of the body’s immune cells. Also, in many diseases related to dairy cows and female sheep, this vitamin is given to prevent placental abruption and the production of live lambs and to prevent abortion.