Flax (Usitatissim Linum) is an important perennial crop that is used for the oil obtained from the seeds
It is cultivated to use the fiber in its straw. Flaxseed or Linseed is generally harvested when approximately 90% of the seeds are raised and light brown in color.
Flax seed shape
Flax seeds are very small seeds and the mucilage in their outer coating gives them a very slippery quality, which makes it difficult to touch and process flax seeds.
Linseed oil and its fatty acid composition
Depending on the location, variety, environmental conditions and analysis method, the composition of flax seed may be significantly different.
It has been reported that the dispersion of linseed oil is about 35-45%, these numbers show the role of the location and variety of linseed in the content of linseed oil.
In any case, what makes flaxseed as a favorite product is not its high oil content, because its oil content is not significantly higher than the oil content of major oilseeds, but the reason for that is its very high percentage of linolenic acid. Of all the oil in flaxseed, linolenic acid is the main fatty acid component of most flaxseed cultivars.
In addition to the above oil, flaxseed contains 20% protein and 30% NDF, which makes it a source of protein and energy in feeding dairy cows. Flaxseed is considered as a fat supplement containing essential fatty acid alpha linoleic and lignan, which is a strong antioxidant in animal feed. In the part of the outer fiber layer of the flax seed, there is the richest source of plant lignans, and isolaricosinol diglucoside forms more than 95% of the flax lignans. The amount of sesoisolaricosinol diglucoside in the flax seed varies from 6.1 to 25.9. Seed lignans Flax does not interfere with reproduction. For example, rations containing 9% rolled grain and 10.8% whole grain increased the fertility of dairy cows.
In non-ruminant animals, plant lignans are converted into animal lignans, which include interdiol (ED) and interlactone (EL) under the influence of clonal bacteria.
In ruminant animals, in vivo studies have shown that rumen microbes have the ability to convert sesoisolaricirinol diglucoside to EL and ED, and EL is the main final product of lignan in the rumen fluid. Scientists’ studies have shown that the rumen is the main place of flax lignan metabolism in It is dairy cows and EL excreted in urine, blood and milk showed that the products of metabolism can be transported in physiological fluids.
Anti-nutritional substances in flax seeds
Immature flax seeds contain glucosidic substances such as linamarin, linostatin and neolinostatin. At a temperature between 40 and 50 degrees Celsius, with a pH level of 2 to 8 and in the presence of moisture, the linase enzyme releases hydrogen cyanide (HCN).
In the normal process of oil extraction, high temperature destroys the lysine enzyme and no hydrogen cyanide is produced.
But seeds that are not completely processed and flaxseed meal processed at low temperature can be toxic to animals, especially monogastrics, it is recommended to pour flaxseeds in boiling water (instead of cold water). , then boil them for five minutes. This process breaks the seed coat, allowing the cyanide compounds produced to react or degrade, and any cyanide to vaporize. The cooked seeds form a thick mass. slow Extraction with trichlorethylene or carbon tetrachloride destroys its glucosides.
Vitamin B6 antagonist
Flax seeds contain lainatin and vitamin B6 antagonist in concentrations of 20 to 100 mg/kg.
Symptoms of B6 deficiency can be seen in broiler chickens fed with flaxseed, and it is recommended to add vitamin B6 to their diets or flaxseed meal.
Oilseeds contain 2 to 7% mucilage or mucin, which interferes with processing and digestion.
Mucilages absorb water, increase the viscosity of the intestine and have a laxative effect. Although this laxative effect can be useful in humans, it can cause a decrease in performance in livestock, especially in young birds. Adding fiber-degrading enzymes and gradually eating your seeds have been suggested to relieve these anti-nutritional effects.
The effect of flaxseed on milk fatty acid composition and animal health
In general, raw and processed flaxseed changes the fatty acid profile of milk fat, so that it increases the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids by reducing saturated fatty acids in total fatty acids.
Studies show that processed and raw flaxseed increases the amount of saturated and unsaturated C18 and C19 fatty acids in milk fat. But short and medium chain length fatty acids C4 and C17 and likewise It did not reduce or affect longer chains (more than C19).
Feeding flaxseed generally reduces the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids in milk fat; which probably improves the fatty acid profile of milk and as a result improves human health, flaxseed is easily eaten by dairy cows and feeding it up to 150 grams per kilogram of dry matter has an effect on the consumption of dry matter in the early and late stages of lactation does not have.
In addition, the feeding of flax seeds at the rate of 90 grams per kilogram of dry matter reduces fetal mortality; Therefore, it improves the state of fertility in dairy cows. Today, there is a tendency to use whole flax seed or its derivatives, which include (ground form, flax oil, flax meal, flax fiber and lignans extracted from it) in animal nutrition and feed. Poultry has increased.
The use of flaxseed in the transition period (3 weeks before to 3 weeks after calving) causes significant effects on the health, production and profitability of dairy cows.
During this period, feed intake does not meet the animal’s needs for milk production, which results in a negative energy balance. In the early days of lactation, there is an increase in the breakdown of fat from fat and muscle tissue to provide energy for body maintenance and milk production.
The breakdown of body fat is accompanied by an increase in non-esterified fatty acids in the plasma, these compounds are consumed by the liver. Most of the esterified fatty acids are obtained from the oxidation of fatty acids of triglycerides, which leads to the occurrence of fatty liver, gluconeogenesis.
Using flax seed during this period provides energy and prevents metabolic disease.