Strengthening the ration of newborn cows with feed additives

The ration of newborn cows is important since cows face many tensions and challenges in the first few days and weeks after calving. These stresses and challenges negatively affect the immune system of cows and make them more susceptible to metabolic and health problems

A newborn cow is always exposed to many metabolic problems, but with careful management and consultation with a nutritionist for the prudent use of feed additives, newborn cows can be helped to start a successful lactation period. A newborn cow during the waiting period and after calving is necessary to start an excellent lactation period

After giving birth, newborn cows can hardly consume enough dry matter to meet their nutritional needs for lactation. As a result, the cow calls on its body reserves to provide the required energy, which can expose the cow to various metabolic abnormalities and weaken the cow’s immune system. These metabolic abnormalities have a negative effect on the performance and profitability of Dosha cows. There are several feed additives that have the potential to maximize production efficiency and reduce the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities in the diet of newborn cows. Because some of these additives work better for herds that have separate rations for fresh cows, some beneficial additives suitable for use in fresh calving diets include

Yeast: Using yeast, you can improve dry matter intake and rumen performance. The performance of the rumen varies according to the viability of yeast or yeast culture. Yeast can reduce the amount of lactic acid and increase the amount of fiber-digesting bacteria or microbial efficiency. Because yeast is beneficial for all production stages of livestock, it can be used without doubt in farms that do not have a separate place for newborn cows

Amino acids: The amino acid methionine can improve milk production and dry matter consumption and increase the function of the immune system by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that rumen-protected methionine and methionine analogs can both increase the production potential of cattle when fed during the waiting period and the neonatal period. The best result of using methionine is achieved when it is fed at the beginning of the dry period and continues until the lactation period. Therefore, in order to use feed additives in the best way, cattle farms should adjust a special ration for cows waiting to give birth

Monensin: Monensin can improve energy metabolism. Livestock need enough energy to produce milk, and cows’ need for glucose almost doubles on the 11th day after giving birth. When dry matter intake alone is insufficient to meet the lactation needs of cows, monensin provides the glucogenic precursors needed to meet those needs

Rumen Protected Choline: Helps remove fat from the liver, thus preventing fatty liver and ketosis, and increases milk production. Most cows experience negative energy balance to some extent in early lactation as they call on fat stores for energy, which leads to the production of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Some NEFAs are used as energy by the mammary glands, but most enter the liver for metabolism

The liver has little ability to process fat. Therefore, NEFAs entering the liver can potentially lead to fatty liver disease or ketosis. Because choline is broken down in the rumen, it is important that sources of choline used for newborn cows are of the rumen-protected variety. Due to its high price, protected rumen choline is better to be used in cattle farms that have a separate place for cows at the beginning of dry season, waiting for calving and newborns

Chromium: This element can improve dry matter consumption and immune system function and help energy metabolism. Cows’ need for glucose is high in early lactation. Chromium contributes to the effective breakdown of glucose in newborn cows by increasing insulin secretion

Group B vitamins: These vitamins are involved in energy balance and can improve health and milk production. The types of vitamin B are: biotin, folic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B12. In most cases, there is an idea that these vitamins are produced sufficiently in the rumen, but some of this vitamin may not be produced enough to maximize performance. In many cases, these vitamins can be found together in a rumen-protected compound that can be ingested to reduce the incidence of ketosis and increase productive and reproductive potential

Biotin:Biotin is one of the B vitamins. Biotin is a coenzyme that is necessary for the activity of carboxylase enzymes, including acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, propionel coenzyme A carboxylase, and pyruvate carboxylase, and for the synthesis of keratin, and is usually needed to stimulate the differentiation of epidermal skin cells. Clinical studies in dairy cattle (adult or growing), sheep, and beef cattle showed improved hoof and coat health in animals fed 10 to 20 mg of biotin per day. Milk production has also been shown to increase when biotin is added to the diet of dairy cows

Mycotoxin Binder: Mycotoxins can be found in almost all types of processed forages and seeds. These toxins are produced by molds and fungi in farm forage or stored forage when conditions are favorable for their growth. Because newborn cows are under stress and their immune system function is compromised, the presence of mycotoxins raises more concerns. In addition to having a negative effect on the rumen and immune system function, mycotoxins can reduce dry matter consumption and milk production, among other things

Vitamin A:Vitamin A, as the most sensitive fat-soluble vitamin to oxidation, may be greatly degraded by the ruminal fermentation process. Therefore, it is necessary to include this vitamin in a protected form in supplements. The coated form of vitamin A in vitamin supplements increases the bioavailability by 90% compared to non-coated forms (less than 40% bioavailability)

  Cation-anion difference in the ration of newborn livestock:Although the cation-anion difference has been noticed more in the period of waiting for delivery, it has been determined that the cation-anion difference in postpartum diets should also be taken into account. Increasing the cation-anion difference in the diet of lactating animals by using sodium or potassium supplements may help animals to neutralize high amounts of acid resulting from rumen fermentation and metabolism. Diet cation-anion difference may be increased by reducing anions or food items with high levels of anions; The use of sodium bicarbonate or potassium carbonate can also lead to an increase in the cation-anion difference of postpartum diets. In postpartum diets, the cation-anion difference between 25 and 30 milliequivalents per 100 grams of dry matter of the diet is effective and sufficient to reach the maximum dry matter consumption and milk production. Amounts less than +20 milliequivalents per 100 grams of dry matter of the diet or more than +40 milliequivalents per 100 grams of dry matter of the diet are not recommended in post-partum rations. The use of both sodium and potassium elements to increase the cation-anion difference of the diet are equally effective in terms of the effect on the lactation rate. Therefore, it is recommended to use a cationic source with a minimum price in terms of milliequivalents. During heat stress, the cation-anion difference of the ration is suggested to be around the maximum recommended level of +40 milliequivalents per 100 grams of dry matter of the ration

A newborn cow is always exposed to many metabolic problems, but with careful management and consultation with a nutritionist for the prudent use of food additives, newborn cows can be helped to start a successful lactation period

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