What is a retained fetal membranes (RFM)?
Physiologically, the membranes of the fetus should be removed usually 12 hours after delivery, and the remaining membranes of the allantochorion inside the uterus during pregnancy is the reason for the pathological state, and this remaining placenta may continue for 4 to 8 days or even more, which in In this case, the effects of putrefaction and changes of infection appear in it, so if the placenta is not removed after 2 days at most, we must perform a therapeutic operation to remove the placenta so that it does not lead to uterine infection and subsequent lesions.
Many factors such as improper feeding, lack of vitamins A and E, twin births, and even being thin or very fat cows have an effect on the occurrence of bovine RFM, the placenta may be hanging, and infectious agents from manure and mud when the cow walks. Attached to the placenta, it enters the cow’s uterus and causes dangerous diseases.
The main factors in the occurrence of RFM
1. Infectious factors such as abortion cause the fetus not to be completely removed from the cow’s uterus.
2. Deficiency of vitamins A, E and deficiency of selenium and copper
3. Poor nutrition in terms of minerals
4. Cow being too thin or fat
5. Twin birth and difficult birth
6. Calcium deficiency or milk fever in cows
The best way to prevent RFM
Both in terms of health and nutrition, cows must be fed properly, especially in cattle farms, if there is negligence in the management of feeding cows, a series of diseases may affect the cows, the most common of which is cow’s placenta. Being too fat or too thin in the cow will cause the cow to have difficulty giving birth and will actually cause RFM. However, the lack of selenium and vitamins required by the animal’s body is not ineffective in the occurrence of the disease, so it is better to have a dry period of 6 or 8 weeks in the food ration. reach its balance.
1. Adequate mobility
2. The cleanliness of the place where cows give birth
3. The balance of livestock ration in 6 to 8 weeks of dry season
4. Injecting vitamins A and D by intramuscular injection in animals 4-8 weeks before calving
5. Keeping the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the animal’s body stable to prevent milk fever
How to treat bovine RFM
1. Antibiotic (probably by intravenous injection and dextrose liquid) or by local intrauterine method by a veterinarian
2. Washing the cow’s uterus
3. Removal of remaining placenta by administering medicine
4. Cow intrauterine injections that must be prescribed by a veterinarian.
Remaining of the placenta inside the cow’s uterus will cause uterine infection and practically infertility of the animal, so you should immediately remove the fetus. Of course, it is recommended that you first provide the place for the cow to remove the entire placenta by itself and then wash the cow’s uterus.
Removing the placenta by hand:
There are three ways to remove the pair, which we will describe:
Some experts are of the opinion that it is necessary to cut the cotyledons of the placenta to the maternal caruncles by hand. Those who follow this opinion are afraid of the risk of infection due to the placenta remaining and mention it as a danger to the animal, but some believe that the placenta will come out by itself and there is no need to take it out by hand, it should only be done through disinfection. The uterus is protected from possible infections by placing antibiotic pills (tetracycline) and there are some who believe that both putting pills in the uterus and injecting antibiotics and using drugs for the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland are necessary, and in case the placenta does not come out. It is necessary to pull it out by hand. Among these three methods, the third solution is more acceptable and it seems reasonable to follow it, that is, first inject the necessary drugs and then, if the placenta does not come out, pull it out by hand, which is recommended to always act this way.
According to the experiences of English researchers, trying to remove the placenta in the first 48 hours does not have any results because the placenta is often firmly attached to the cavity and trying to separate it leads to bleeding, and in some cases the caruncle itself is cut off, causing septicemia. Fever, loss of appetite.
In addition, the fertile part of the uterus is usually out of reach at this time, on the same principle, pulling out the placenta should be delayed until the 3rd or 4th day, and after the 4th day, the placenta rots and the separation of the placenta from the maternal crypts begins. It is easier. It should be noted that the cow should not get sick as a result of manipulation, because in this case it may lead to the death of the cow.
According to the research of German veterinarians, although it is better to touch the uterus and leave the placenta on its own and remove it by itself, it can be claimed that if epidural anesthesia is performed, we can remove the placenta slowly and with hygiene. And these factors should be taken into consideration along with the fight against possible infections, and the slow removal of the placenta should always be taken into consideration, and if we can remove the placenta in the first days, the risk of infection is much less, and poisoning and infection also occur. will not
Swiss researchers have also confirmed this method and declared that the cause of disease and infection most of the time is the filling of the uterus with fluids. Observing pus in the uterus is a sign of infection and requires full treatment using antibiotics and possibly intrauterine injections. When the placenta is hanging from the vagina, it can be removed by twisting it and separating the adhesions with a set.
Cattle feeding management
Just as pregnancy and cow pregnancy are very important, it is definitely important to manage cow nutrition during the pregnancy period and of course before cow mating, because the lack of a series of vitamins is not ineffective in the occurrence of RFM, so the animal ration should always be standardized. May it prevent the occurrence of such diseases.
Losses caused by RFM
Certainly, the problem of infertility is one of the most important causes of the disease, which can cause huge losses to you and interfere with the reproduction of cows, but in addition to infertility, it can cause a decrease in the production of cow’s milk, which means a great disappointment and huge losses to the cow farmers. Care should be taken to take good care of them and treat the disease quickly.