What is ketosis?
Ketosis (astonemia) occurs in lactating dairy cows during the first 6 weeks after calving, which is very important in the first three weeks. This disease often occurs during the winter feeding period and also when cows are in closed places. This disease is more likely to occur in old cows than in newborn heifers.
Cause of ketosis:
The reason for this complication is a series of changes in the metabolic process, the main focus of which is a decrease in blood glucose and an increase in the production of ketone bodies in the blood. Ketone compounds are metabolic intermediate products resulting from the transfer of stored fats in the body. Major ketone compounds include beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), acetoacetate and acetone. The above complication is called ketosis due to the accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood and urine of cows.
The increase of ketone bodies in body fluids occurs during long-term negative energy balance and the need to break down fats in the body during starvation, insufficient nutrition and high production of cows. In ruminant animals, the lining cells of the rumen produce ketone bodies using the volatile fatty acids of the rumen, especially butyrate. Silage materials that have a lot of butyric acid cause cows to suffer from ketosis. In addition to changes in the metabolism of fatty acids in the liver, one of the main changes in ketosis is a large decrease in the concentration of glucose in the blood and the amount of glycogen in the liver. The decrease in blood glucose is responsible for the increase in free fatty acids in the liver. If the blood glucose concentration is normal, the free fatty acids in the blood are low, and as the plasma glucose concentration decreases, the amount of free fatty acids in the plasma increases because the fatty acids are released from the fat storage tissues. At the same time as blood glucose decreases, ruminant animals obtain their glucose through non-glucose sources such as propionic acid, lactic acid, glycerol and some amino acids. When glucose is used for energy production and the formation of lactose, oxaloacetate may be preferentially used to form glucose, which results in a reduction in the amount of oxaloacetate from gluconeogenesis required to use acetyl-CoA in the Krebs cycle. Therefore, acetyl CoA is converted into ketones such as acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and a small amount of acetone.
Ketone substances are oxidized by body tissues except liver, especially by muscles. If the production of ketone substances is more than their consumption by the surrounding tissues, ketosis will occur. Another factor in the occurrence of ketosis is obesity, which causes a decrease in appetite, an increase in the breakdown of body fat, an increase in the accumulation of fat in the liver, and an increase in the production of ketone bodies. Not getting enough energy after giving birth causes ketosis.
Signs and symptoms of ketosis:
The most common symptom of ketosis is weight loss. Weight loss occurs rapidly due to the consumption of body fat and water loss. A ketosis cow is often depressed, does not want to move, and its hair is coarse and rough. Body temperature, heart rate and breathing are usually normal, and the breath smells like acetone. Some cows may stagger, the muscles especially the mid-flank muscles tremble, the cow may lose its balance and appear blind.
Diagnosis of ketosis:
The level of glucose and ketones in the blood is the best parameter for diagnosing ketosis. The amount of blood glucose from the normal level of 2.2 to 2.8 mmol/liter to 1.4 mmol/liter and the total blood ketones from 1.75 mmol/liter to 5 mmol/liter and in cows with Aspartate aminotransferase enzyme ketosis increases, which is a sign of liver damage and anorexia.
Types of early ketosis are seen in cows that consume high-energy diets in the early stages of lactation. The parameters affecting the occurrence of this disease are high consumption of silage with high butyric acid, inactivity, high obesity during calving and digestive disorders, secondary ketosis occurs after any disease that causes a decrease in food consumption at the beginning of lactation.
The diseases that cause ketosis are:
breast displacement, uterine inflammation (metritis), mastitis and fatty liver. The main damage caused by secondary ketosis is fatty liver. During calving, the accumulation of fats in the liver takes place on a large scale, but they show their effect after calving. This problem disrupts the gluconeogenesis of the liver and increases the risk of cow disease as soon as the milking starts. Affected cows show ketosis within the first or second week of calving. The concentration of blood ketones in secondary ketosis is not as high as in primary ketosis. With this possibility, the improvement in secondary ketosis after treatment is weaker because the treatment has little effect on improving the damage caused to the liver due to the entry of fats and reducing the glyconeogenesis capacity of the cow. One of the methods of treating ketosis is intravenous injection of 500 ml of 50% glucose solution to increase blood glucose, but due to the production of lactose for milk and the reduction of glucose, if successive injections of glucose are not performed, the disease will return.
In order to avoid repeated injections, you can feed propylene glycol to cows, the amount of which is 125 to 250 grams 2 times a day and it dissolves in the same amount of water. Another method is the injection of some glucocorticoid hormones alone or together with the intravenous injection of glucose. Glucocorticoids produce glucose from amino acids. Injection of a dose of glucocorticoid and 5 to 50 mg of dexamethasone is effective in the treatment of ketosis, and reports indicate that taking twelve grams of niacin for one week reduces plasma ketone concentration, but it has been shown that niacin reduces Plasma NEFA concentrations or blood glucose elevation do not play a role.
It should be noted that eating sugar or molasses has no effect in the treatment of ketosis because rumen microorganisms break them down into volatile fatty acids. The best prevention method is to pay attention to proper nutrition and management to supply the energy needed by the cow. Cows should not be too fat or thin during calving, cows with a history of ketosis should be given propylene glycol or sodium propionate for 6 to 8 weeks after calving. The starting ration of breastfeeding should have the highest amount of glucose precursors and the lowest amount of ketone precursors. The amount of energy consumed by cows should be increased to the extent that it does not cause loss of appetite, the cows should be fed with high-quality fodder, and the consumption of low-quality silage materials with high butyric acid should be avoided, and sufficient amounts of vitamins and minerals should be provided to the cows.
.Fat powder and prevention of ketosis
Fat powder and prevention of ketosis is one of the important topics. Ketosis is a disease related to the metabolism of cows. This disease is very common in the early stages of breastfeeding. About 25 to 35 percent of cows are removed from the herd due to this disease. Here we discuss the roots of ketosis and ways to prevent it.
Not providing energy through rations
In a herd prone to ketosis, a cow receives less energy than it needs. This negative energy balance makes the herd more susceptible to ketosis and fatty liver disease. And this itself causes a decrease in reproduction and milk production, and unfortunately, an increase in casualties.
Prevention of ketosis is the first necessary step for successful breastfeeding. 75% of the diseases of dairy cows are related to 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after giving birth.
Studies show that cattle suffer at least one metabolic problem during all periods of lactation. The most important period of transmission of ketosis is 3 weeks before and 3 weeks after childbirth. This period is the most critical period of the milk production cycle. During this period, the consumption of fat powder should be increased to prevent weight loss during childbirth.
Imbalance in energy demand and consumption
Breastfeeding usually reaches its maximum in the third to sixth weeks after giving birth. While there is no peak consumption during this period. This imbalance begins at the end of pregnancy. Factors creating this imbalance:
1- Rapid growth of the fetus
2- Colostrum rich in nutrients
3- Reducing feed consumption
Prevention of ketosis by emphasizing food consumption
Ketosis and fatty liver result from this energy imbalance. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the relationship between fat powder and ketosis prevention. The use of glucose precursor compounds prevents the accumulation of glucose in the blood and liver. And it makes cattle feed better.
Key measures to prevent ketosis
Adequate consumption of fat powder in the critical period of livestock
Creating a suitable environment for childbirth
Ensuring the quality of food
Use of necessary compounds to prevent ketosis
Consumption of fat powder produced by DUA CUDA Company in Indonesia and Dynalac fat supplement produced by UFAC Company in England provides the energy needed by animals during the time of negative energy balance and the peak of animal production and prevents ketosis and the resulting damages.