One of the main human needs is food supply, which has brought problems with the huge growth of the population. This has caused all the countries of the world to seek the production of quality food. In our country, in recent years, special attention has been paid to Livestock and poultry breeding has become one of the most important issues that should be taken into account during breeding. The use of quality and appropriate food has a great impact on the growth of livestock and poultry and reducing the costs of breeding centers. They need certain amounts of nutrients that if they do not receive enough and in a balanced way, they will be in a poor nutritional status. In such a situation, their growth efficiency and health will be disturbed. If the nutritional disorders are severe, it may even lead to lead to the death of the animal. Nutrient supply for the animal is through food. Foods vary greatly in terms of physical quality and nutrients. The nutritional value of a specific food item may vary greatly from one region to another. Supplying the nutritional needs of farm animals in the first stage requires knowing the nutrients needed by the animals There are different conditions of maintenance, production, etc., and in the next stage, it will be necessary to know the food ingredients and the nutritional compounds in them. In this case, it will be possible to provide balanced rations. Therefore, attention should be paid to increasing the production efficiency of farm animals. Research and research on the identification and determination of the nutritional needs of livestock as well as the identification of food items and their nutritional value, considering that the largest share of the cost of raising livestock and poultry is accounted for by feeding (60 to 70 percent of costs). This high production at low cost is not possible without correct and scientific nutrition, and this itself requires identifying the nutritional needs of livestock and knowing the composition of feed in terms of nutrients.
Mineral elements play an important role in the animal nutrition system, so they are necessary for growth, normal production and health. Minerals also play a structural, catalytic and physiological role in body tissues. Adding minerals to diets is done as a supplement to prevent mineral deficiency. Mineral feed supplements are recommended for all animals. Researches have shown that the use of magnesium oxide in the ration of dairy cows, in addition to its buffering properties, provides the needs of the cows for the magnesium element. The combined supplement of minerals along with the basic diet should be given daily with a dose of 30 grams for calves and dry cows, 50 grams for cows with low production (10 kg of milk/day), 60 grams for medium production (15 kg of milk/day) and 80 – 100 grams per day should be added to the diet for high producing cows (more than 20 kg of milk/day). Mineral supplements can also be added to the concentrate mixture (2 kg for every 100 kg of concentrate).
Minerals needed by livestock are classified into two groups:
A– High consumption mineral substances (macro): the concentration of these substances in components is more than 100 PPM. Such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chlorine, potassium and sulfur.
B– Low-consumption (micro) minerals: the concentration of these substances in the components of Chemetz feed is 100 PPM. Copper, zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt, iodine, selenium, chromium, molybdenum, fluorine, arsenic, nickel, and vanadium are included in this category.
In addition, the lack of minerals is more severe during calving, which results in a disturbance in the animal’s metabolism, a decrease in milk production, placental abruption, sensitivity to metabolic diseases, and an increase in calf mortality.
The most important and common mineral supplements for animal and poultry feed:
Calcium carbonate :
Calcium is one of the essential elements for the life of all living organisms, which plays the role of bone formation, improving the digestive system and regulating biological processes.
The use of calcium carbonate in livestock and poultry feed is the most practical and cheapest method to meet calcium needs in livestock and poultry farms. It is most widely used in the diet of laying hens and mothers, and according to the production stage, 5 to 10% is used in the diet, and it has the role of supplying calcium to the egg shell. It is also used in the diet of ruminants to provide milk calcium and bone formation at the rate of 1% concentrate.
Processed bentonite for livestock and poultry feed is a type of multifaceted clay that both calcium bentonite and sodium bentonite are suitable for livestock and poultry feed. Bentonite is usually used for feed or as a toxin binder in ration storage silos. Livestock and poultry are used and have two main roles.
First, it acts as a germicide and disinfectant in animal feed and the animal’s digestive system, and secondly, by having various micronutrients, it helps the growth and weight gain of the herd. Bentonite is not only used for feeding animals in cattle farms and sheep breeding centers but it is also used as poultry feed in chicken farms.
With the difference that bentonite can be used to keep the poultry litter dry and clean. Among the properties of bentonite in animal and poultry feed, we can mention the removal of heavy metals and fungal toxins created in the diet.
Limestone has 35 to 38% calcium, its fluorine content should be low. Powdered limestone is added to the feed of chickens and egg-laying poultry.
Oysters (mineral and marine):
Oyster powder is one of the products obtained from marine organisms and is a very good source of calcium, which is also produced in mineral form and contains 38% calcium. This powder is very useful and efficient for broiler chickens and egg-laying poultry.
Salt is a source of sodium and chlorine. It is necessary to have a little salt in the diet, but the amount of salt in the chicken diet should not be more than necessary.
Quality salt is an important thing in feeding livestock and poultry to increase the appropriate weight of livestock, optimize milk production and increase the overall health of livestock by choosing the purity of salt. In addition to improving the taste, it is also responsible for supplying the sodium needed by the body. Rock salt consumed by livestock due to its low humidity has a long shelf life and plays a very effective role in preventing the spread of microbial and digestive diseases.
Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate):
Sodium bicarbonate or baking soda (NaHCO3), contains sodium and bicarbonate and does not contain chlorine ions, it is a chemical compound with many uses in animal and poultry nutrition. Sodium bicarbonate can be used in livestock and poultry supplements to maintain anion and cation balance and to provide sodium. Its sodium content is 28%. Sodium in ruminant diets has a buffering effect and is useful for maintaining rumen acidity. Using baking soda during heat stress can help balance blood pH and overcome heat stress. The use of baking soda in cattle rations is allowed up to 12% of concentrate and 20% of the ration in poultry feed.
Magnesium oxide is a white substance that absorbs moisture and is obtained from the processing and purification of mineral magnesium carbonate.
Since magnesium is involved in most of the necessary reactions of the body, it is considered an important element in livestock and poultry feed. Research has proven that the use of this magnesium oxide as a supplement for livestock and poultry increases pH, increases the ratio of acetate to propionate, and improves The digestibility of dry matter becomes starchy. This performance leads to an increase in dry matter consumption, milk production, milk fat percentage, and an increase in milk production corrected based on milk fat. The use of this item in the diet of laying hens and mothers also improves the quality of egg shells
Manganese oxide with the chemical formula MnO2 is a gray powder.
Manganese oxide is one of the most common compounds that is widely used in the livestock and poultry feed industry as a food supplement for livestock and poultry. This element is transported by a special protein called trans-mangabin in the blood, and its deficiency causes growth reduction and delay. In bone formation, reproductive disorders and neurological complications occur, and in poultry, it causes changes in the shape and expansion of joints, and in chickens, they come out of the egg shell later, and their bodies swell and their legs are shortened. Deficiency of this element In female animals, it causes ovarian dysfunction and male animals become sterile, and it also affects their nervous system.
It is one of the low consumption and important supplements in livestock and poultry feed. Iron has a very specialized role in the body of all animals and is a part of hemoglobin and myoglobin protein in muscle cells. Iron has a high metabolic rate in chickens and should be To be provided in a completely accessible form in the animal’s ration based on daily needs.
Cream-colored, odorless powdered enzyme is one of the types of zeolites.
This substance is used as an additive in the diet of animals (livestock, poultry, aquatic animals). Today, fungi and toxins are the most important pathogens in animals, and by absorbing these toxins, enzymes can improve health and improve food. In addition to livestock and poultry feed, this mineral also plays an important role in aquatic feed and environment.
Di-calcium phosphate :
Dicalcium phosphate or DCP for short is prepared from the reaction of phosphoric acid with calcium carbonate. This substance in livestock and poultry supplements contains elements of phosphorus and calcium, both of which play important roles in metabolic and biosynthetic reactions of the body (such as coagulation blood, physiological activity of the heart, cell exchanges and neuromuscular activity, formation of bone structure, teeth, egg shell and correct activities of the digestive system) in livestock and poultry. This substance in livestock and poultry supplements improves egg shell formation, improves conversion rate, increases appetite, bone formation and maintenance, improves reproduction and increases the production of fertilized eggs in mother hen flocks. Also, in ruminants, it increases milk production, prevents milk fever and retained placenta, increases bone strength and growth, and increases food yield. The appearance of this salt is in the form of granules, which is added as an additive in the diet of livestock and poultry and is consumed as grain for livestock and poultry feed.
It is an essential element of livestock and poultry supplements that is present in the structure of more than 250 different enzymes and plays a role in pathways such as carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein synthesis, nucleic acid metabolism, epithelium integrity, cell repair and proliferation, and the use of vitamins. It should be noted that this substance in the livestock and poultry supplement reduces the amount of skin tearing in poultry and improves the performance of carbonic anhydrase and keratinase, which are involved in the formation of shell and shell membranes, respectively. Also, zinc is used in livestock and poultry supplements in male animals for the development of spermatozoa and therefore plays a role in fertility.
This element is present in livestock and poultry supplements in the structure of enzymes that increase membrane strength, tissue elasticity and increase bone strength. This substance has a close relationship with iron metabolism, which is an essential element in the structure of hemoglobin. Another important copper-dependent enzyme is lysine oxidase, which is a key enzyme in the formation of collagen and elastin. Copper deficiency leads to abnormal bones due to abnormal collagen synthesis. Also, this item improves the oxidation of vitamin C in livestock and poultry supplements and interferes in the formation of RNA.
This mineral is very important in supplementing livestock and poultry. This mineral is a co-factor of enzymes that are present in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and nucleic acids. Also, this substance plays an important role in the body’s immune function and is necessary for the healing of damaged wounds. Manganese deficiency in growing chickens leads to bone shortening and arching, and it