Management of protein and amino acids in the feeding of dairy cattle

Excessive protein intake in dairy cows is costly. At the same time, lack of adequate protein or correct type of nutrition is costly. Increasing information about protein nutrition in dairy cows will have at least three benefits.

It is difficult to maintain utility in dairy farms, but maximizing feed efficiency can help to resolve this problem.

Excessive protein intake in dairy cows is costly. At the same time, lack of adequate protein or correct type of nutrition is costly. Increasing information on protein nutrition in dairy cows will have at least three benefits:

First, our goals are met with a more complete understanding of cattle metabolism. Through these goals, the value of the milk produced along with the yield of the feed and, ultimately, the profitability of our cows and their careers. In addition, lowering the protein cost in the dairy cows means increasing the profit of the livestock.

Second, it challenges environmental concerns and costs associated with nutrient management and nitrogen contamination. Improving protein yields in cows means reducing the amount of nitrogen discharged into the water of roads, the earth and the atmosphere.

Third, it reduces the use of amino acid technology and the need for animal protein products to be used.

Too much protein is not a new item

It was a time when many livestock breeders had small herds trying to get the most nutrients they needed from forage or pasture. The balance of diets was primitive. It was found that immature fodder has a higher protein content and is better than adult fodder, and whenever a good hay was harvested, the cows were good milk. Ranchers soon began to think: “If the fodder has more protein, it is better” and this thinking would balance the ration. Then, researchers in the field of ruminants, learned from researchers in the field of monogastric stomachs and how individual amino acid proteins alone can have a significant effect on livestock performance. But single stomachs have only one stomach to worry about. Ruminants have four stomachs and the exact prediction of their need for amino acids to grow and produce milk is much harder.

Because balancing amino acids is extremely difficult for ration of dairy cows, it is ruminal. The ruminal microbes are the first food protein recipients. Then they break down, they will eat what they want and leave the rest. The combination of amino acids derived from digestive substances that are absorbed in the small intestine is often lacking in essential amino acids.

In recent years, with increased feed costs and lower food revenues, livestock farmers have been looking for ways to reduce feed costs without reducing milk production or its composition. The livestock industry is struggling to compete for less resources in today’s economy, while addressing nutrient management (nitrogen) and environmental care. The full recognition of the metabolism of amino acids and nutritional needs of dairy cows should be at the top of the work in order to increase feed efficiency and reduce nitrogen contamination.

Reality is a significant change in our attitude towards protein in the milk of dairy cows. But we are no longer talking about the level of crude protein in the diet because the crude protein is just a measure of the amount of nitrogen (not the specific amino acids, not the concepts of rumen degradable protein (RDP) and not indissoluble protein in the rumen) and completely complex It does not specify the amino acids to balance. Many foods and substitutes do not have the right mix of essential amino acids needed by cows that are high in production.

Nutrition of the exact and continuous amount of metabolizable amino acids through food is a challenge due to the diversification of its bioavailability in feeds. Diets that consist of a high percentage of corn and its byproducts are lysine deficient. Diets made up of a high percentage of a nutrient will be in short supply for many essential amino acids. Diets should be balanced in such a way that they contain different nutrients to prevent the deficiency of one to more amino acids.

Many studies on the determination of the need for amino acids focus on the combination of amino acids in milk and cow’s body tissue and compare them with the composition of the ruminal microbial amino acid. Cows provide more than 50% of their metabolizable protein from microbes released from the rumen that is absorbed into the small intestine. The more microbial protein can be produced in the rumen, the better the protein status of the cow, thus reducing the need for side-effects of animal proteins that have variable amounts of amino acid passage.

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